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Why Do Men Face A Higher Risk Of Most Types Of Cancer Than Women? | NEWS-Line for Occupational Therapists & COTAs
 


Why Do Men Face A Higher Risk Of Most Types Of Cancer Than Women?


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Rates of most types of cancer are higher in men than in women for reasons that are unclear. Results from a recent study published by Wiley online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, suggest that the cause may be underlying biological sex differences rather than behavioral differences related to smoking, alcohol use, diet, and other factors.

Understanding the reasons for sex differences in cancer risk could provide important information to improve prevention and treatment. To investigate, Sarah S. Jackson, PhD, of the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, and her colleagues, assessed differences in cancer risk for each of 21 cancer sites among 171,274 male and 122,826 female adults aged 50–71 years who were participating in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study from 1995–2011.

During that time, 17,951 new cancers arose in men and 8,742 in women. Incidence was lower in men than women only for thyroid and gallbladder cancers, and risks were 1.3- to 10.8-times higher in men than women at other anatomic sites. The greatest increased risks in men were seen for esophageal cancer (a 10.8-times higher risk), larynx (a 3.5-times higher risk), gastric cardia (a 3.5-times higher risk), and bladder cancer (a 3.3-times higaher risk).

Men had an increased risk of most cancers even after adjusting for a wide range of risk behaviors and carcinogenic exposures. Indeed, differences in risk behaviors and carcinogenic exposures between the sexes only accounted for a modest proportion of the male predominance of most cancers (ranging from 11% for esophageal cancer to 50% for lung cancer).

The findings suggest that biological differences between sexes—such as physiological, immunological, genetic, and other differences—play a major role in the cancer susceptibility of men versus women.

“Our results show that there are differences in cancer incidence that are not explained by environmental exposures alone. This suggests that there are intrinsic biological differences between men and women that affect susceptibility to cancer,” said Dr. Jackson.

An accompanying editorial discusses the study’s findings and notes that a multifaceted approach needs to be in place to address sex disparities in cancer. “Strategically including sex as a biological variable should be enforced along the whole cancer continuum from risk prediction and cancer primary prevention, cancer screening and secondary prevention, to cancer treatment and patient management,” the authors wrote. “Examining and addressing sex disparities in cancer and other diseases is an ongoing quest. Bench to bedside translational studies which effectively transform the existing research findings into clinical practice is a scalable means within easy reach to achieve precision medicine and will mitigate—and may ultimately eradicate—sex disparities in cancer.”
Additional Information

NOTE: The information contained in this release is protected by copyright. Please include journal attribution in all coverage. A free abstract of this article will be available via the Cancer News Room upon online publication. For more information or to obtain a PDF of any study, please contact:
Dawn Peters +1 781-388-8408 (US)
[email protected]

Full Citations:
“Sex disparities in the incidence of 21 cancer types: quantification of the contribution of risk factors.” Sarah S. Jackson, Morgan A. Marks, Hormuzd A. Katki, Michael B. Cook, Noorie Hyun, Neal D. Freedman, Lisa L. Kahle, Philip E. Castle, Barry I. Graubard, and Anil K. Chaturvedi. CANCER; Published Online: August 8, 2022 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr.34390).
URL Upon Publication: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/cncr.34390

Editorial: “Sex disparities in cancer: an ongoing quest.” Jingqin R. Luo and Graham A. Colditz. CANCER; Published Online: August 8, 2022 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr34389).
URL Upon Publication: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/cncr.34389

Author Contact: Maura Costello at [email protected]

About the Journal
CANCER is a peer-reviewed publication of the American Cancer Society integrating scientific information from worldwide sources for all oncologic specialties. The objective of CANCER is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of information among oncologic disciplines concerned with the etiology, course, and treatment of human cancer. CANCER is published on behalf of the American Cancer Society by Wiley and can be accessed online.
Follow us on Twitter @JournalCancer

About Wiley
Wiley is a global leader in research and education, unlocking human potential by enabling discovery, powering education, and shaping workforces. For over 200 years, Wiley has fueled the world’s knowledge ecosystem. Today, our high-impact content, platforms, and services help researchers, learners, institutions, and corporations achieve their goals in an ever-changing world. Visit us at Wiley.com, like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter and LinkedIn.

Source: CANCER




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